MAIANTHEMUM TRIFOLIUM (L.) Sloboda
Three-leaved False Solomon's-seal
HABIT: Perennial herb from a long creeping rhizome, stem 1-4
dm; flowers May-June, fruits June-Aug.
SIMILAR SPECIES: This species may be confused with Smilacina
stellata. S. trifolia has 1-4, glabrous cauline leaves, a long-peduncled
raceme and dark red berries, whereas S. stellata has more than 6, finely
pubescent leaves, a nearly sessile raceme and dark-striped green berries.
TOTAL RANGE: Lab. to Mackenzie, s. to NJ, PA, OH, IL, MN,
Man., Sask. and Alb.
STATE RANGE: There are historical records for this species
from Cuyahoga, Lake, Lorain and Mahoning Counties.
STATE STATUS: 1980 to present: Presumed Extirpated.
HABITAT: Bogs and swamps.
HAZARDS: Destruction of bog habitat by filling, flooding or
RECOVERY POTENTIAL: Probably poor since the species has not
been collected in Ohio for over 100 years.
INVENTORY GUIDELINES: Collect mature flowering or fruiting
material; do not disturb the rhizome.
COMMENTS: The species should be sought in bogs throughout
Braun, E.L. 1967. The Monocotyledoneae [of Ohio]: Cat-tails
to orchids. The Ohio State Univ. Press, Columbus OH. 464 pp.
Galway, D.H. 1945. The North American species of Smilacina.
Amer. Midl. Nat. 33: 644-666.
Voss, E.G. 1972. Michigan Flora, Part I. Gymnosperms
and monocots. Cranbrook Inst. Sci. Bull. 59, Bloomfield Hills, MI. 488 pp.
Ohio Department of Natural Resources
Division of Natural Areas and Preserves
Created: 2/1985 James F. Burns
Revised: 4/1993 Greg Schneider