SYNONYMS: Wulfenia bullii (Eaton) Barnh.
HABIT: Herbaceous perennial from basil rosette, flowering
stalks to 4 dm; flowers May, fruits May-June.
SIMILAR SPECIES: An easily recognized species when in
flower. However, the plant spends the first few years of its life as a rosette
and is very difficult to recognize at this stage.
TOTAL RANGE: S. MI to MN, s. to OH, IN, IL and IA.
STATE RANGE: The species has only been collected once in
Ohio, in 1904 near Dayton (Montgomery County).
STATE STATUS: 1980 to present: Presumed Extirpated.
HABITAT: In sun or semi-shade in well-drained openings such
as prairies, pastures, young woods and cliff tops; often in gravel or
HAZARDS: Overgrowth by woody species as a result of
succession; soil compaction by trampling.
RECOVERY POTENTIAL: Unknown; probably poor. However, the
species is known to respond favorably to fire and to mowing and grazing.
INVENTORY GUIDELINES: Collect mature flowering specimens
only; leave non-flowing rosettes intact, avoid over-collecting.
COMMENTS: Besseya blooms only for a short time and
should be sought in May. By mid-July the flowers have disappeared and only the
rosettes are visible. The species should be sought in southwestern and in
Bentz, G.D. and T.S. Cooperrider. 1978. The Scrophulariaceae
subfamily Rhinanthoides of Ohio. Castanea 43: 145-154.
Bowles, Marlin. 1984. Report on the status of Wulfenia
bullii in Illinois. Morten Arboretum, Lilse, Illinois. Report to the U.S.
Fish and Wildlife Service.
Chapman, K.A. 1981. Besseya bullii (Eaton) Rydb.
Kittentails (Scrophulariaceae) in Michigan. Report to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife
Menges, Eric. 1986. Community structure of Wea Creek Gravel
Hill Prairie, and population biology of Besseya bullii. Report to the
Pennell, F.W. 1935. The Scrophulariaceae of eastern
temperate North America. Acad. Nat. Soc. Philadelphia, Monograph No. 1. 650 pp.
Smith, W. 1982. Report on the status of critical plant
species in Minnesota: Besseya bullii. Report to the U.S. Fish and
Division of Natural Areas and Preserves
Ohio Department of Natural Resources
Created: 3/1985 Allison W. Cusick
Revised: 4/1993 Greg Schneider
Database Code: SPNP.979